State of the art

Legend:

Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA)

Linoleic Acid (LA)

Arachidonic Acid (ARA)

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

Fish Oil (FO)

Vegetable Oil (VO)

Microbial Oil (MO)

 

Aquatic resources, with a total production as 178×106 tons per year, contribute to cover a significant percentage of the world proteins demand and almost fullfill the need for the rare Long Chain Fatty Acids omega-3 (n-3 LCFAs), as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), known to be essential in human nutrition.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

 

Generally, fishmeal (FM) together with fish oil (FO) is incorporated in fish feeds at different percentages; however, because of the increasing FM and FO costs, these percentages are constantly substituted by the addition of cheaper plant-based ingredients (Vegetal oil, VO). As a consequence, the resulting unbalance in essential amino acids (AA), the presence of anti-nutritional factors (e.g., saponins and gossypol) and palatability problems should limit the use of plants meal in the fish diets. Moreover, vegetal oil (VO) being rich of LCFA omega-6, undesirably increase the amount of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in fish diet, instead of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The substitution of large amounts or the total of FO with VO, beside causing poor performances in aquaculture productions, reduces the nutritional value of the fish product that will go below the expected amount of EPA + DHA to cover the 500 mg/day, as recommended by the WHOs for human nutrition. This is the main gap that the project aims to overcome by introducing microbial biomasses in fish feed formulation to match the desired feed additives panel.

Other than the biotechnological aim, MySushi project have another purpose: to transfer the key enabling technologies to aquaculture by establishing interactive processes between innovator and social actors to allow a proper embedding of technological and scientific advances in aquaculture society. This approach is called Responsible Research Innovation (RRI) and is willing to promote not only this specific project, but more generally biotechnological approaches as sustainable alternative to the increasing need for novel sources of goods and services. Right now, aquaculture market lack of an alternative formulation without FO and FM, and microbial oil is the innovation that can add omega-3 in fish feed.

Image from SOFIA 2016  http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5555e.pdf